Place steamer basket into an 8-quart pot and add enough water to come up to nearly the bottom of the basket.
Trim the artichoke by cutting the stem at the base so that it sits upright. Cut the upper third off the top with a sharp chef knife or serrated bread knife then trim the sharp tips off the remaining leaves with kitchen shears. Rinse under cold running water, drain briefly stem side up then flip and place stem side down in the steamer basket.
Turn the heat to high and bring the water to a boil. Once it's boiling, reduce the heat to low, cover with the lid, and steam for 30-35 minutes. You'll know it's cooked when pierced easily with a paring knife at the stem, or the leaves easily pull away. Remove the artichoke and set aside to cool while you make the stuffing.
Combine the breadcrumbs, crackers, salt, Gochugaru, and garlic in a medium bowl. Heat 2 tablespoons of the olive oil in a 10-inch saute pan over medium heat until shimmering, about 2 minutes. Add the crumb mixture to the pan and cook, stirring until golden brown and fragrant, 1-2 minutes. Remove from the heat and cool for 10 minutes.
Add the anchovies and lemon juice to the cooled crumbs, then fold in the parmesan and parsley.
Position a rack in the upper third of the oven and set the broiler to high. Make a well in the center of the stuffing mixture and place the cooled artichoke in it. Spoon the stuffing into the spaces between the leaves until there's no more stuffing to stuff. Drizzle the top with the remaining olive oil and place on a foil-lined sheet pan. Broil for 2-3 minutes until the stuffing is brown and crisped.
To eat: pull a leaf, stuffing side up, and bite, letting your top teeth scrape off the stuffing along with the flesh from the petals. Once you reach the center, you'll want to scoop and discard the small spiny leaves along with the hairy choke with a small knife or grapefruit spoon. You'll then be rewarded with the tender heart (the best part).Stuffed artichokes are equally delicious warm or at room temperature.