Fill a 5-quart Dutch oven halfway with peanut oil. Set over medium-high heat and bring to 390 to 400ºF.
Remove the pickles from their brine and cut lengthwise into quarters, like spears. Lay the spears on a half sheet pan lined with paper towels and pat them dry.
Pour the buttermilk into a shallow dish. In a separate dish, mix the cornmeal and salt together. Dip each pickle, one at a time, first into the buttermilk, then into the cornmeal and then repeat. Carefully place each spear into the hot oil and cook until golden brown, approximately 2 minutes. You can fry 3 to 4 pickles in the pot at a time. Adjust the heat, if necessary, in order to maintain a constant temperature of 390 to 400ºF.
Transfer the pickles to a cooling rack set inside a half sheet pan and allow to cool for 5 minutes before eating. Season with additional salt, if desired.