Place the beans in a large plastic container and add enough cold water to just submerge the beans. Soak overnight.
Place a cast-iron Dutch oven over medium heat and stir in the bacon, onion, and jalapenos until enough fat has rendered from the bacon to soften the onions, about 5 minutes. Stir in the tomato paste, dark brown sugar, and molasses.
Drain the beans and reserve the soaking liquid. Add the drained beans to the Dutch oven. Place the soaking liquid in a measuring cup and add enough vegetable broth to equal 4 cups of liquid. Add the liquid to the Dutch oven and bring to a boil over high heat. Add the cayenne, black pepper, and salt. Give them a stir and cover with the lid. Place the Dutch oven in the oven until the beans are tender, 6 to 8 hours.